- Aneurysm clipping
Clipping is a surgery performed to treat an aneurysm - a balloon-like bulge or weakening of an artery wall. As an aneurysm grows, it can become so thin that it leaks or ruptures, releasing blood into the spaces around the brain. This bleeding is life threatening. A neurosurgeon opens the skull (craniotomy) and places a tiny clip across the neck of the aneurysm to stop or prevent an aneurysm from bleeding.
- Aneurysm embolization: coiling, stenting, flow diversion
Embolization is a minimally invasive procedure to treat an aneurysm by filling it with material that closes off the sac and reduces the risk of rupturing or rebleeding. It is performed from "within" the artery (endovascular) through a steerable catheter inserted into the blood stream at the groin and guided to the brain. Tiny coils, glue, or mesh stents are used to promote clotting and close off the aneurysm.
- Aneurysm ruptured
An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge of an artery wall. As an aneurysm grows it puts pressure on nearby structures and may eventually rupture. A ruptured aneurysm releases blood into the spaces around the brain, called a subarachnoid hemorrhage, a life-threatening type of stroke. Treatment focuses on stopping the bleeding and repairing the aneurysm with clipping, coiling, or bypass.
- Aneurysm unruptured
An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge of an artery wall. As an aneurysm grows it puts pressure on nearby structures and may eventually rupture. Most people find out they have an unruptured aneurysm by chance during a scan for some other problem. The risk of rupture varies depending on the aneurysm location and size. Treatment options include observation, clipping, coiling, or bypass.
- Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels in the brain or spine. AVM arteries connect directly to veins without a capillary bed in between causing the vessels to stretch and sometimes rupture. Symptoms include stroke, seizures, headache, and other problems. Treatment options include surgery, embolization, and radiosurgery.
- Carotid stenosis
Carotid stenosis is a narrowing of the carotid arteries, the two major arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain. Also called carotid artery disease, the stenosis is caused by a buildup of plaque (atherosclerosis) inside the artery wall that reduces blood flow to the brain. Treatment aims to reduce the risk of stroke by controlling or removing the plaque and preventing blood clots.
- Cerebral bypass surgery
Cerebral bypass surgery is performed to restore, or "revascularize," blood flow to the brain. A cerebral bypass is the brain's equivalent of a coronary bypass in the heart. The surgery connects a blood vessel from outside the brain to a vessel inside the brain to reroute blood flow around a damaged or blocked artery. The goal of bypass surgery is to restore blood supply to the brain and prevent strokes.
Craniotomy is a surgery to cut a bony opening in the skull. A section of the skull, called a bone flap, is removed to access the brain underneath. A craniotomy may be small or large depending on the problem. It may be performed to treat tumors, hematomas, aneurysms, AVMs, skull fractures, foreign objects, swelling of the brain, or infection. The bone flap is usually replaced with tiny plates and screws.
- Intracerebral hemorrhage ICH
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is caused by bleeding within the brain tissue itself - a life-threatening type of stroke. A stroke occurs when the brain is deprived of oxygen and blood supply. ICH is most commonly caused by hypertension, arteriovenous malformations, or head trauma. Treatment focuses on stopping the bleeding, removing the blood clot, and relieving the pressure on the brain.
- Intracranial artery stenosis
Intracranial stenosis is a narrowing of an artery inside the brain. A buildup of plaque (atherosclerosis) inside the artery wall reduces blood flow to the brain. Atherosclerosis that is severe enough to cause symptoms carries a high risk of stroke and can lead to brain damage and death. Treatments aim to reduce the risk of stroke by controlling or removing plaque buildup and by preventing blood clots.
- Moyamoya disease
Moyamoya disease is caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain. The name "moyamoya" means "puff of smoke" in Japanese and describes the appearance of tiny vessels that form to compensate for the blockage. As the normal blood vessels narrow and become blocked, a person may suffer a stroke. No medication can stop or reverse the progression of moyamoya disease. Treatment focuses on reducing the risk of stroke and restoring blood flow to the brain.
Think of a stroke as a "brain attack" - it is an emergency! When symptoms appear call 911 immediately; every minute counts. A stroke occurs when the brain is deprived of oxygen and blood supply. A person may have problems speaking, walking, seeing, or thinking. It may result in permanent brain damage or death. If the stroke is caused by a blood clot, a clot-busting drug or retrieval device may be used to restore blood flow.
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage & vasospasm
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening type of stroke caused by bleeding into the space surrounding the brain. SAH can be caused by a ruptured aneurysm, AVM, or head injury. One-third of patients will survive with good recovery; one-third will survive with a disability; and one-third will die. Treatment focuses on stopping the bleeding, restoring normal blood flow, and preventing vasospasm.